International Science Index

International Journal of Sport and Exercise Sciences

Percentage Contribution of Lower Limb Moments to Vertical Ground Reaction Force in Normal Walking
Patients suffering from gait disturbances are referred by having muscle group dysfunctions. There is a need for more studies investigating the contribution of muscle moments of the lower limb to the vertical ground reaction force using 3D gait analysis system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the hip, knee and ankle moments in the sagittal plane contribute to the vertical ground reaction force in healthy subjects during normal speed of walking. Forty healthy male individuals volunteered to participate in this study. They were filmed using six high speed (120 Hz) Pro-Reflex Infrared cameras (Qualisys) while walking on an AMTI force platform. The data collected were the percentage contribution of the moments of the hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane at the instant of occurrence of the first peak, second peak, and the trough of the vertical ground reaction force. The results revealed that at the first peak of the ground reaction force (loading response), the highest contribution was generated from the knee extension moment, followed by the hip extension moment. Knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion moments produced high contribution to the trough of the ground reaction force (midstance) with approximately equal values. The second peak of the ground reaction force was mainly produced by the ankle plantar flexion moment. Conclusion: Hip and knee flexion and extension moments and ankle plantar flexion moment play important roles in the supporting phase of normal walking.
Improving Emotional and Social Resilience in Young People: Examining the Effectiveness of a Football Based Mental Health Intervention
Mental health in the young is growing area of concern. Depression, low self-esteem and anxiety are common mental health issues among adolescents. The costs of poor mental health are immense. Suicide is the largest reason for death among males under 25 years. Sport interventions are argued to have the potential to address social issues faced by young people. Mental health and well-being has become a more overt agenda within UK sporting policy recently. This is particularly evidenced through the publication of the 2016-2021 Sport England Strategy: Towards an Active Nation, where specific reference is made to developing a better understanding of the role sport can play in promoting mental well-being. This focus is referred to in the documentation as ‘welcomed’ and ‘ambitious’ and as such, relevant insight is essential to ensure that this outcome is met. The research project collected data for a new sport based mental health intervention called ‘Upfront’ which is being led by a mental health organization and a charity branch of a Premier League football club. The Upfront project used football as a vehicle to promote mental wellbeing and provided a toolkit to help young people (aged 7-13) develop emotional and social resilience and coping mechanisms. The research aimed to assess the impact of the Upfront scheme and offer recommendations about how it could be improved for year 2 delivery.Each block of delivery of the Upfront project was 10 weeks. Validated well-being scales were used to measure thoughts and feelings of the participants in weeks 1, 5 and 10. In addition, qualitative research methods were drawn upon in order to develop an in-depth understanding of the impact of the project, particularly in terms of the relevance of the football brand in engaging young people in a well-being program and the impact the mental health ‘toolkit’ has had on attitudes and behavior both in a school and home environment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with young people, program leaders, teachers and parents in order to examine impact from different perspectives. The results from the well-being scales showed a strong trend of positive well-being, this was consistent between weeks 5 and 10 showing that the impact was made by half way into and sustained.A directed coding approach was used to analyze the interviews. The 5 ways to wellbeing model was drawn upon as a coding framework to establish whether the project had a positive impact and whether young people felt better equipped for future challenges that they might face. Responses were coded into the following themes to reflect the desired outcomes of the project. The themes were as follows: connect; be active; take notice; keep learning and give. ‘Connect’ and ‘take notice’ were particularly strong themes and frequently linked to issues such as forming positive relationships, awareness of their own thoughts and actions, challenging bullying and promoting safe online connections. The results indicated that the scheme had impacted positively on the young people and their social and emotional resilience. The data from year 1 provided feedback on areas for development for year 2.
A Qualitative Exploration of How Brazilian Immigrant Mothers Living in the United States Obtain Information about Physical Activity and Screen-Time for Their Young Children
Background: Racial/ethnic minority children of low-income immigrant families remain at increased risk of obesity. Consistent with high rates of childhood obesity among racial/ethnic minority children are high rates of physical inactivity and increased levels of sedentary behaviors (e.g., TV and other screen viewing). Brazilians comprise a fast-growing immigrant population group in the US, yet little research has focused on the health issues affecting Brazilian immigrant children. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how Brazilian-born immigrant mothers living in the United States obtain information about physical activity and screen-time for their young children. Methods: Qualitative research including focus groups with Brazilian immigrant mothers of preschool-age children living in the U.S. Results: Results revealed that Brazilian immigrant mothers obtain information on young children’s physical activity and screen-time from a variety of sources including interpersonal communication, television and magazines, government health care programs (WIC program) and professionals (e.g., nurses and pediatricians). A noteworthy finding is the significant role of foreign information sources (Brazilian TV shows and magazines) on mothers’ access to information about these early behaviors. Future research is needed to quantify and better understanding Brazilian parents’ access to accurate and sound information related to young children’s physical activity and screen-viewing behaviors. Conclusions: To our knowledge, no existing research has examined how Brazilian immigrant mothers living in the United States obtain information about these behaviors. This information is crucial for the design of culturally appropriate early childhood obesity prevention interventions tailored to the specific needs of this ethnic group.
Educational Sport and Quality of Life for Children and Teenagers from Brazilian Northeast
The use of sport as an integration mean is a very important tool regarding the social involvement of children and teenagers in a vulnerability situation. This study aims to report the experiences of a multidisciplinary program that intends to improve the quality of life of children and teenagers in Fortaleza, in the Northeast of Brazil. More than 400 children and teenagers aging 11 and 16 years participated in this study. Poor communities experience many particular difficulties in the urban centers such as violence, poor housing conditions, unemployment, lack in health care and deficient physical education in school. Physical education, physiotherapy, odontology, medicine and pharmacy students are responsible for the activities in the project supervised by a general coordinator and a counselor teacher of each academic unit. There are classes about team sports like basketball and soccer. Lectures about sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases are ministered beside the ones about oral health education, basic life support education, first aids, use and care with pharmaceuticals and orientations about healthy nutrition. In order to get the children’s family closer, monthly informative lectures are ministered. There is also the concern about reflecting the actions and producing academic paperwork such as graduation final projects and books. The number of participants has oscillated lately, and one of the causes is the lack of practicing physical activities and sports regularly. However, 250 teenagers have participated regularly for at least two years. These teenagers have shown a healthier lifestyle and a better physical fitness profile. The resources for maintaining the project come from the Pro-Reitoria of Extension, Federal University of Ceara, as well as from the PROEXT/MEC, Federal Government. Actions of this nature need to be done thinking for long periods so the effects results can become effective. Public and private investments are needed due to low socioeconomic families who are most vulnerable and have fewer opportunities to enhance to health prevention services.
A Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Program to Optimally Pace and Fuel Ultramarathons
The purpose of this research is to determine the pacing and nutrition strategies which minimize completion time and carbohydrate intake for athletes competing in ultramarathon races. The model formulation consists of a two-phase optimization. The first-phase mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINLP) determines the minimum completion time subject to the altitude, terrain, and distance of the race, as well as the mass and cardiovascular fitness of the athlete. The second-phase MINLP determines the minimum total carbohydrate intake required for the athlete to achieve the completion time prescribed by the first phase, subject to the flow of carbohydrates through the stomach, liver, and muscles. Consequently, the second phase model provides the optimal pacing and nutrition strategies for a particular athlete for each kilometer of a particular race. Validation of the model results over a wide range of athlete parameters against completion times for real competitive events suggests strong agreement. Additionally, the kilometer-by-kilometer pacing and nutrition strategies, the model prescribes for a particular athlete suggest unconventional approaches could result in lower completion times. Thus, the MINLP provides prescriptive guidance that athletes can leverage when developing pacing and nutrition strategies prior to competing in ultramarathon races. Given the highly-variable topographical characteristics common to many ultramarathon courses and the potential inexperience of many athletes with such courses, the model provides valuable insight to competitors who might otherwise fail to complete the event due to exhaustion or carbohydrate depletion.
Stress-strain Relation for Human Trabecular Bone Based on Nanoindentation Measurements
Nanoindentation or depth-sensing indentation (DSI) technique has proven to be very useful to measure mechanical properties of various tissues at a micro-scale. Bone tissue, both trabecular and cortical one, is one of the most commonly tested tissues by means of DSI. Most often such tests on bone samples are carried out to compare the mechanical properties of lamellar and interlamellar bone, osteonal bone as well as compact and cancellous bone. In the paper, a relation between stress and strain for human trabecular bone is presented. The relation is based on the results of nanoindentation tests. The formulation of a constitutive model for human trabecular bone is based on nanoindentation tests. In the study, the approach proposed by Olivier-Pharr is adapted. The tests were carried out on samples of trabecular tissue extracted from human femoral heads. The heads were harvested during surgeries of artificial hip joint implantation. Before samples preparation, the heads were kept in 95% alcohol in temperature 4 Celsius degrees. The cubic samples cut out of the heads were stored in the same conditions. The dimensions of the specimens were 25 mm x 25 mm x 20 mm. The number of 20 samples have been tested. The age range of donors was between 56 and 83 years old. The tests were conducted with the indenter spherical tip of the diameter 0.200 mm. The maximum load was P = 500 mN and the loading rate 500 mN/min. The data obtained from the DSI tests allows one only to determine bone behoviour in terms of nanoindentation force vs. nanoindentation depth. However, it is more interesting and useful to know the characteristics of trabecular bone in the stress-strain domain. This allows one to simulate trabecular bone behaviour in a more realistic way. The stress-strain curves obtained in the study show relation between the age and the mechanical behaviour of trabecular bone. It was also observed that the bone matrix of trabecular tissue indicates an ability of energy absorption.
Microstructural Mechanical Properties of Human Trabecular Bone Based on Nanoindentation Test
Depth-sensing indentation (DSI) or nanoindentation is becoming a more and more popular method of measuring mechanical properties of various materials and tissues at a micro-scale. This technique allows measurements without complicated sample preparation procedures which makes this method very useful. As a result of measurement force and displacement of the intender are obtained. It is also possible to determine three measures of hardness i.e. Martens hardness (HM), nanohardness (HIT), Vickers hardness (HV) and Young modulus EIT. In this work trabecular bone mechanical properties were investigated. The bone samples were harvested from human femoral heads during hip replacement surgery. Patients were of different age, sexes and stages of tissue degeneration caused by osteoarthritis. The specimens were divided into three groups. Each group contained samples harvested from patients of different range of age. All samples were investigated with the same measurement conditions. The maximum load was Pmax=500 mN and the loading rate was 500 mN/min. The tests were held without hold at the peak force. The tests were conducted with indenter Vickers tip and spherical tip of the diameter 0.2 mm. Each trabecular bone sample was tested 7 times in a close area of the same trabecula. The measured loading P as a function of indentation depth allowed to obtain hysteresis loop and HM, HIT, HV, EIT. Results for arbitrarily chosen sample are HM=289.95 ± 42.31 MPa, HIT=430.75 ± 45.37 MPa, HV=40.66 ± 4.28 Vickers, EIT=7.37 ± 1.84 GPa for Vickers tip and HM=115.19 ± 15.03 MPa, HIT=165.80 ± 19.30 MPa, HV=16.90 ± 1.97 Vickers, EIT=5.30 ± 1.31 GPa for spherical tip. Results of nanoindentation tests show that this method is very useful and is perfect for obtaining mechanical properties of trabecular bone. Estimated values of elastic modulus are similar. The differences between hardness are significant but it is a result of using two different types of tips. However, it has to be emphasised that the differences in the values of elastic modulus and hardness result from different testing protocols, anisotropy and asymmetry of the micro-samples and the hydration of bone.
Viscoelastic Behavior of Human Bone Tissue under Nanoindentation Tests
Cancellous bone is a porous composite of a hierarchical structure and anisotropic properties. The biological tissue is considered to be a viscoelastic material, but many studies based on a nanoindentation method have focused on their elasticity and microhardness. However, the response of many organic materials depends not only on the load magnitude, but also on its duration and time course. Depth Sensing Indentation (DSI) technique has been used for examination of creep in polymers, metals and composites. In the indentation tests on biological samples, the mechanical properties are most frequently determined for animal tissues (of an ox, a monkey, a pig, a rat, a mouse, a bovine). However, there are rare reports of studies of the bone viscoelastic properties on microstructural level. Various rheological models were used to describe the viscoelastic behaviours of bone, identified in the indentation process (e. g Burgers model, linear model, two-dashpot Kelvin model, Maxwell-Voigt model). The goal of the study was to determine the influence of creep effect on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone in indentation tests. The aim of this research was also the assessment of the material properties of bone structures, having in mind the energy aspects of the curve (penetrator loading-depth) obtained in the loading/unloading cycle. There was considered how the different holding times affected the results within trabecular bone.As a result, indentation creep (CIT), hardness (HM, HIT, HV) and elasticity are obtained. Human trabecular bone samples (n=21; mean age 63±15yrs) from the femoral heads replaced during hip alloplasty were removed and drained from alcohol of 1h before the experiment. The indentation process was conducted using CSM Microhardness Tester equipped with Vickers indenter. Each sample was indented 35 times (7 times for 5 different hold times: t1=0.1s, t2=1s, t3=10s, t4=100s and t5=1000s). The indenter was advanced at a rate of 10mN/s to 500mN. There was used Oliver-Pharr method in calculation process. The increase of hold time is associated with the decrease of hardness parameters (HIT(t1)=418±34 MPa, HIT(t2)=390±50 MPa, HIT(t3)= 313±54 MPa, HIT(t4)=305±54 MPa, HIT(t5)=276±90 MPa) and elasticity (EIT(t1)=7.7±1.2 GPa, EIT(t2)=8.0±1.5 GPa, EIT(t3)=7.0±0.9 GPa, EIT(t4)=7.2±0.9 GPa, EIT(t5)=6.2±1.8 GPa) as well as with the increase of the elastic (Welastic(t1)=4.11∙10-7±4.2∙10-8Nm, Welastic(t2)= 4.12∙10-7±6.4∙10-8 Nm, Welastic(t3)=4.71∙10-7±6.0∙10-9 Nm, Welastic(t4)= 4.33∙10-7±5.5∙10-9Nm, Welastic(t5)=5.11∙10-7±7.4∙10-8Nm) and inelastic (Winelastic(t1)=1.05∙10-6±1.2∙10-7 Nm, Winelastic(t2) =1.07∙10-6±7.6∙10-8 Nm, Winelastic(t3)=1.26∙10-6±1.9∙10-7Nm, Winelastic(t4)=1.56∙10-6± 1.9∙10-7 Nm, Winelastic(t5)=1.67∙10-6±2.6∙10-7)) reaction of materials. The indentation creep increased logarithmically (R2=0.901) with increasing hold time: CIT(t1) = 0.08±0.01%, CIT(t2) = 0.7±0.1%, CIT(t3) = 3.7±0.3%, CIT(t4) = 12.2±1.5%, CIT(t5) = 13.5±3.8%. The pronounced impact of creep effect on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone was observed in experimental studies. While the description elastic-inelastic, and thus the Oliver-Pharr method for data analysis, may apply in few limited cases, most biological tissues do not exhibit elastic-inelastic indentation responses. Viscoelastic properties of tissues may play a significant role in remodelling. The aspect is still under an analysis and numerical simulations. Acknowledgements: The presented results are part of the research project founded by National Science Centre (NCN), Poland, no.2014/15/B/ST7/03244.
Assessing Gender Mainstreaming Practices in the Philippine Basic Education System
Female drop-outs due to teenage pregnancy and gender-based violence in schools are two of the most contentious and current gender-related issues faced by the Department of Education (DepEd) in the Philippines. The country adopted gender mainstreaming as the main strategy to eliminate gender inequalities in all aspects of the society including education since 1990. This research examines the extent and magnitude by which gender mainstreaming is implemented in the basic education from the national to the school level. It seeks to discover the challenges faced by the central and field offices, particularly by the principals who served as decision-makers in the schools where teaching and learning take place and where opportunities that may aggravate, conform and transform gender inequalities and hierarchies exist. The author conducted surveys and interviews among 120 elementary and secondary principals in the Division of Zambales as well as selected gender division and regional focal persons within Region III- Central Luzon. The study argues that DepEd needs to review, strengthen and revitalize its gender mainstreaming because the efforts do not penetrate the schools and are not enough to lessen or eliminate gender inequalities within the schools. The study found out some of the major challenges in the implementation of gender mainstreaming as follows: absence of a national gender-responsive education policy framework, lack of gender responsive assessment and monitoring tools, poor quality of gender and development related training programs and poor data collection and analysis mechanism. Furthermore, other constraints include poor coordination mechanism among implementing agencies, lack of clear implementation strategy, ineffective or poor utilization of GAD budget and lack of teacher and learner centered GAD activities. The paper recommends the review of the department’s gender mainstreaming efforts to align with the mandate of the agency and provide gender responsive teaching and learning environment. It suggests that the focus must be on formulation of gender responsive policies and programs, improvement of the existing mechanism and conduct of trainings focused on gender analysis, budgeting and impact assessment not only for principals and GAD focal point system but also to parents and other school stakeholders.
Elements of Sector Benchmarking in Physical Education Curriculum: An Indian Perspective
The study was designed towards institutional analysis for a clear understanding of the process involved in functioning and layout of determinants influencing physical education teacher’s education program in India. This further can be recommended for selection of parameters for creating sector benchmarking for physical education teachers training institutions across India. 165 stakeholders involving students, teachers, parents, administrators were surveyed from the identified seven institutions and universities from different states of India. They were surveyed on the basis of seven broad parameters which were associated with the post graduate physical education program in India. A physical education program assessment tool of 52 items was designed to administer it among the stakeholders selected for the survey. An item analysis of the contents was concluded through the review process from selected experts working in higher education with experience in teacher training program in physical education. The data was collected from the stakeholders of the selected institutions through Physical Education Program Assessment Tool (PEPAT). The hypothesis that PE teacher education program is independent of physical education institutions was significant. The study directed a need towards robust admission process emphasizing on identification, selection of potential candidates and quality control of intake with the scientific process developed according to the Indian education policies and academic structure. The results revealed that the universities do not have similar functional and delivery process related to the physical education teacher training program. The study reflects towards the need for physical education universities and institutions to identify the best practices to be followed regarding the functioning of delivery of physical education programs at various institutions through strategic management studies on the identified parameters before establishing strict standards and norms for achieving excellence in physical education in India.
Examining College Students’ Attitudes toward Diversity Environments in a Physical Activity Course
In recent year, cultural diversity has acquired increasing attentions in our society due to the cultural pluralism and globalization. With the emphasis of diversity in our society, higher education has played a significant role in preparing people to be successful in a diverse world. A number of colleges and universities provide various diversity-related courses that enhance students to recognize the importance of diversity and multiculturalism. However, little research has been conducted with diversity environments in physical activity and sports-related courses to appreciate students’ attitudes toward multiculturalism. Physical activity courses can be regarded as an essential and complementary part of general education. As well, playing and watching certain sports plays a critical role to foster mutual understanding between different races and to help social integration for minority communities. Therefore, it is expected that the appropriate diverse environments in physical activity courses may have a positive impact to the understandings of different cultures and races. The primary purpose of this study is to examine attitudes toward cultural diversity in a physical activity course among undergraduate students. In building on the scholarly foundation in this area, this study applies the established survey scale (e.g., Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment [PADAA]) developed by Stanley (1996) and previous literature related to cultural diversity. The PADAA includes 19 questions. The following two research hypotheses were proposed. H1: Students who take a diversity-related physical course (i.e., Taekwondo) will provide positive attitude changes toward their cultural diversity. H2: Students who take a general physical activity course (i.e., Weight Training) will provide no significant attitude changes toward their cultural diversity. To test the research hypotheses, subjects will be selected from the both Taekwondo and Weight Training class at University of West Georgia. In the Taekwondo class, students will learn the history, meaning, basic terminology, and physical skills, which is a Korean martial art and the national sport of Korea. In the Weight Training class, students will not be exposed to any cultural diversity topics. Regarding data analysis, Doubly Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (Doubly MANCOVA), 2 (time period: pre and after) X 2 (diversity-related content exposure: Taekwondo and Weight Training), will be conducted on attitudes toward the cultural diversity with control variables such as gender and age. The findings of this study will add to the body of literature in cultural diversity because this will be the first known attempt to explain the college students’ attitudes toward cultural diversity in a physical activity courses. The expected results will state that the physical activity course focusing on diversity issues will have a positive impact on college students’ attitude toward cultural diversity. This finding will indicate that Universities need to create diverse programs (e.g., study abroad, exchange program, second language courses) and environments so that students can have positive interactions with other groups of races and different cultures. It is also expected that the positive perceptions and attitudes toward cultural diversity will break down cultural barriers and make students be ready for meeting several challenges in a multicultural and global society.
Haematological Responses on Amateur Cycling Stages Race
multiple stage bicycle races require high physiological loads from professional cyclists. Such demands can lead to immunosuppression and health problems. However, in this type of competition, little is known about its physiological effects on amateur athletes, who generally receive less medical support. Thus, this study analyzes the hematological effects of a multiple stage bicycle race on amateur cyclists. Seven Brazilian national amateur cyclists (34 ± 4.21 years) underwent a laboratory test to evaluate VO2Max (69.89 ± 7.43 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1). Six days later, these volunteers raced in the Tour of Goiás, participating in five races in four days (435 km) of competition. Arterial blood samples were collected one day before and one day after the competition. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to evaluate the data distribution and Wilcoxon to compare the two moments (p
The Effect of 8 Week Aerobic Training on Some Indices of Cardio-Respiratory and Exercise Tolerance in Overweight Women's with Chronic Asthma
Asthma, obesity or overweight is one of the factors changes of heart - respiratory airways affected. Asthma with signs that occur during exercise. Epidemiological studies of the incidence of asthma symptoms with lifestyle factors such as sedentary, metabolic diseases and cardio - vascular aim of this study suggest the effect of eight weeks of aerobic activity on some indicators of cardiorespiratory and resistance in women with Asthma chronic mild overweight. This quasi-experimental and applied research using experimental and control groups before and after the test and doing the experimental group (7 patients) and control group (n = 7) were graded. According to Borg dyspnea and fatigue Perception Index training intensity was determined. People for two months submaximal aerobic activity schedule (45 to 80 percent of maximum heart rate) paid to aerobic exercise. The control group (n = 7) stayed away from aerobic exercise. Indicators measured in basic conditions were measured using standard. Data evaluation and analysis of covariance comparing the pre-test and post-test each paired t-test with significance level was performed (P ≤ 0/05). The results of the experimental group after eight weeks of exercise a significant decrease in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure, minute ventilation and a significant increase in maximal oxygen uptake and tolerance was observed activity ((P ≤ 0/05). In the control group, there was no significant difference in these parameters. ((P ≤ 0/05).The results showed that the aerobic activity strengthens the respiratory muscles and other physiological factors can cause breathing and heart recovery. Aerobic activity also resulted in favorable changes in cardiovascular parameters and exercise tolerance of women is overweight with chronic asthma.
Serum Anti-Oxidation Enzymes Response to L- Carnitine Supplementation
Exercise training induced Inflammation and stress. Antioxidant, for example L- Carnitine has beneficial effects in immune system and increased antioxidant enzymes activity. L- Carnitine protects the tissue against the oxidative side effect and helps the body to protect against stress during and after acute exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L-Carnitine on the blood enzymes: GPX SOD, CAT and GR response. In this study, 20 basketball players girls participated. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups; placebo and supplementation. Antioxidadision enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase) evaluated. L-Carnitine supplement group orally daily received 3000 mg powder for 14 dys. Then all participates trained basketball exercise acute. Blood samples were drawn vein before and immediately after exercise. Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase were measured, and data was analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA, Bonferroni and t-test. Our results showed: SOD, GPX and GPX (P < 0.05) have a significant increase. These results suggest L-Carnitine supplementation may increase GPX SOD, CAT, and basal anti oxidative capacity. L-Carnitine can modulate the alterations of exercise oxidative damage in girl basketball players.
A Twelve-Week Intervention Programme to Improve the Gross Motor Skills of Selected Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Neuro-typical children develop the motor skills necessary to play, do schoolwork and interact with others. However, this is not observed in children who have learning or behavioural problems. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often referred to as clumsy because their body parts do not work well together in a sequence. Physical Activity (PA) has shown to be beneficial to the general population, therefore, providing children with ASD opportunities to take part in PA programmes, could prove to be beneficial in many ways and should be investigated. The purpose of this study was to design a specialised group intervention programme, to attempt to improve gross motor skills of selected children diagnosed with ASD between the ages of eight and 13 years. A government school for ASD learners was recruited to take part in this study, and a sample of convenience (N=7) was selected. Children in the experimental group (n=4) participated in a 12-week group intervention programme twice per week, while the control group continued with their normal daily routine. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2), was administered pre- and post-test to determine the children’s gross motor proficiency and to determine if the group intervention programme had an effect on the gross motor skills of the experimental group. Statistically significant improvements were observed in total motor skill proficiency (p < 0.05), of the experimental group. These results demonstrate the importance of gross motor skills interventions for children diagnosed with ASD. Future research should include more participants to ensure that the results can be generalised.
Diagnostic Comparison of Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and International Obesity Task Force Criteria for Obesity Classification in Nigerian and South African Children
Globally, childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially leading to high prevalence rates of noncommunicable diseases. Obesity does not only persist in high-income countries, but is also prevalent in the middle to lower income nations. This study compared the diagnostic criteria of Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) for obesity classification in Nigerian and South African children. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standardized protocol and used to estimate body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). BMI for age and country was used to classify the children according to weight categories, whilst WHR assessed fat distribution among the children and percentage of body fat (% BF) indicated adiposity. BMI, %BF, WHR and sum of skinfolds (SSK) were examined for boys and girls according to age category. The results showed that 1.1% (IOTF cut-off point) and 9.9% (CDC criteria) of Nigerian children were overweight. Corresponding data for South African children were 1.8% (IOTF) and 10.0% (CDC). Obesity estimates for Nigerian and South African children slightly varied for IOTF classification (1.1; 0.7%), but were similar when CDC classification was used (5.1%). The IOTF results showed that South African children were more underweight (74.6%) compared to Nigerian children (70.6%). In contrast, the CDC standard, indicated strikingly lower incidence of underweight among the South African (4.9%) and Nigerian (4.8%) children is the lack of consistency in body weight classification using CDC and IOTF reference standards raises the question as the right standard to use to evaluate weight abnormalities in children and adolescents. The choice of cut-off point in assessing overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence should be based on sound judgement as this could undermine the integrity of epidemiological research data.
Prevalence of the Risk Factors for Cardio-Metabolic Disease among Fire-Fighters in the Western Cape Province of South Africa
Cardio-metabolic disease risks factor have reached an epidemic, with many people at risk of premature disability and death. There are insufficient data regarding the prevalence of the risk factors for cardio-metabolic diseases among fire fighters in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risks factors among South African fire fighters in the Western Cape Province; determine relationships between the BMI and risks factor for cardio-metabolic diseases as well as determining which of the cardio-metabolic disease risk factors is with the highest prediction power among the fire fighters in the Western Cape Province. Height, weight, and circumference of waist and hip were assessed in line with the practice of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropmetry (ISAK) (2006). Physiological measurements of blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and cholesterol were also assessed. Of the total number of the fire-fighters, 42.5% were obese, 17.4% were overweight, 39.7% had normal BMI, while only 0.5% were underweight. The larger percentage (45.7%) of the participants were systolically pre-hypertensive while 14.2% were hypertensive. Furthermore, almost forty percent (39.3%) were pre-diabetic, 18.3 % were diabetic, while only 1.4% were having blood sugar which was below normal level. In terms of the cholesterol levels, 45.7% were normal, 38.8% were already at the borderline high while 15.5% were high. The majority (51.1%) of the participant reported non-participation in physical activity while only 49.9% participates in physical activity. there was a statistically significant relationship between the BMI and WHR (r= 0.296; p > 0.01), SBP (r= 0.346; p > 0.01), and DBP (r= 0.330; p > 0.01) of the participants. Also, BMI significantly positively correlated with glucose (r= 0.247; p > 0.01), and cholesterol (r= 0.156; p < 0.05). The BMI was also found to be significantly positively correlated with the circumference of the waist and hip (r= 0.699; p > 0.01) and SBP (r= 0.711; p > 0.01) respectively. In the backward regression model analysis, the model with bodyweight, WHR, and SBP (model 4) was the best of all possible models since it had the highest value of adjusted R square which represents the amount of variance (35%) in the BMI predicted by the model. Bodyweight, WHR, and SBP were significant predictors of cardio-metabolic disease risks factor among fire fighters in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.
Contribution of Upper Body Kinematics on Tennis Serve Performance
Tennis serve is characterized as one of the most prominent techniques pertaining to the success of winning a point. The study was aimed to explore the contributions of the upper body kinematics on the tennis performance during Davis Cup (Oceania Group). Four Indian International tennis players who participated in the Davis Cup held at Indore, India were inducted as the subjects for this study, with mean age 27 ± 4.79 Years, mean weight 186 ± 6.03 cm, mean weight 81.25 ± 7.41kg, respectively. The tennis serve was bifurcated into three phases viz, preparatory phase, force generation phase and follow through phase. The kinematic data for the study was recorded through the high speed canon camcorder having a shuttle speed of 1/2000, at a frame rate of 50 Hz. The data was analysed with the motion analysis software. The descriptive statistics and F-test was employed through SPSS version 17.0 for the determination of the undertaken kinematic parameters of the study, and was computed at a 0.05 level of significance with 46 degrees of freedom. Mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficient also employed to find out the relationship among the upper body kinematic parameter and performance. In the preparatory phase, the analysis revealed that no significant difference exists among the kinematic parameters of the players on the performance. However, in force generation phase, wrist velocity (r= 0.47), torso velocity (r= -0.53), racket velocity r= 0.60), and in follow through phase, torso acceleration r= 0.43), elbow angle (r= -0.48) play a significant role on the performance of the tennis serve. Therefore, players should ponder upon the velocities of the above segments at the time of preparation for the competitions.
Work, Pension and Physical Activity: Findings from an Interview Study
Objective: To examine the interrelation of physical activity with work-related variables in older individuals to determine pathways to promote the maintenance of an aging workforce’s ability and motivation to work. Design/methodology/approach: An interview-study was conducted with N=5,002 community-dwelling people aged 55 to 70 years (for T1). N=2,501 (50%) were interviewed 3 years later again (T2). Correlation-, Chi²-, MANOVA and moderated mediation analyses were performed. Findings: The less people worked, the more physically active they were. Working was only related to calendar age but not to subjective age. Men and women only differed in working hours and an interaction of gender and pension regarding working hours and subjective health revealed: Controlled for calendar age, the amount of worked hours while receiving pension was about the same in men and women, however, men worked significantly more hours if they did not receive pension. The relationship between physical activity and worked hours was mediated by life investment and subjective health in women, and by subjective health in men. Practical implications: Developing good health through performing physical activity should be done as part of work-place health promotion or by work organization and HR management to enable, and motivate older individuals to work even when receiving pension. Thus, such initiates should not only offered for younger and middle aged employees. Physical activity and company-facilitated sports activities can be an integral part in this. Originality/value: This is the first study testing these mechanisms in this age group, indicating the importance of not only understanding physical activity as a time challenge to work but also the potential to protect workability and to work aside from receiving pension.
Return to Work Rates of Participants in Medical Rehabilitation: The Role of Fitness and Health
Objective: This study examined possible determinants of return to work (RTW) in individuals who participated in a medical rehabilitation program longitudinally over a time period of six months. Design/methodology/approach: N=1,044 rehabilitants were included in the baseline measurement in terms of completing a questionnaire during their medical rehabilitation. About 30% (n=350) have remained in the study in terms of participating in computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) six months later. Frequency analyses and Regression analyses were run. Findings: About 70% of the rehabilitants returned to work six months after rehabilitation. Regression analyses revealed that the RTW rates were significantly predicted by gender (OR=0.12, men were more likely to return), perceived social support (OR=3.01) and current physical functioning (OR=1.25). Furthermore RTW motives, like expected monetary rewards (OR=25.2) and feelings of being needed (OR=0.18) same as motives for not returning to work (nRTW), like the wish to stop working in order to spend time with the spouse (OR=0.13) or a lack of enjoyment of work (OR=3.81), significantly predicted return to work rates. Life satisfaction, self-efficacy beliefs, mental health, current income, educational background or age did not significantly increase explained variance (all ps > .05). Practical implications: Taking theses predictors into account provides options to increase the effectiveness of interventions aiming at increasing RTW: Medical rehabilitations should not only aim at improving the physical functioning but also to enhance beneficial motives and social support as well as support women specifically in order to improve the effectiveness of medical rehabilitation and public health interventions. Originality/value: Illness-caused work absences are related to high financial costs and individual burden. Despite of the public health and societal implications, this is one of the very few studies investigating systematically fitness and health for the return to work.
Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking Training
The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age=22.5( ± 1.0) years, body mass=61.4 ( ± 3.6) kg, height=170.3 ( ± 4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age=22.7 ( ± 2.9) years, body mass=53.0 ( ± 1.7) kg, height=156.7 ( ± 4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Participants were on treadmill walked without pole (W), with pole (NW) and with weight pole (1kgNW) each 5 minutes with resting recovery periods. Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Surface EMG data was recorded follows eight muscles; biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Statistical proceeding used t-tests, and the level of significance set at p < 0.05. The result of this experiment, it was increased step lengths with hip joint extension NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p < 0.05). It is therefore likely that NW and 1kgNW as a safe, feasible, and readily available form of physical exercise training, which exerts benefıcial effects in a wide range of people with the healthy.
Exploring Digital Media’s Impact on Sports Sponsorship: A Global Perspective
With the continuous proliferation of media platforms, there have been tremendous changes in media consumption behaviors. From the perspective of sports sponsorship, while there is now a multitude of platforms to create brand associations, the changing media landscape and shift of message control also mean that sports sponsors will have to take into account the nature of and consumer responses toward these emerging digital media to devise effective marketing strategies. Utilizing the personal interview methodology, this study is qualitative and exploratory in nature. A total of 18 experts from European and American academics, sports marketing industry, and sports leagues/teams were interviewed to address three main research questions: 1) What are the major changes in digital technologies that are relevant to sports sponsorship; 2) How have digital media influenced the channels and platforms of sports sponsorship; and 3) How have these technologies affected the goals, strategies, and measurement of sports sponsorship. The study found that sports sponsorship has moved from consumer engagement, engagement measurement, and consequences of engagement on brand behaviors to micro-targeting one on one, engagement by context, time, and space, and activation and leveraging based on tracking and databases. From the perspective of platforms and channels, the use of mobile devices is prominent during sports content consumption. Increasing multiscreen media consumption means that sports sponsors need to optimize their investment decisions in leagues, teams, or game-related content sources, as they need to go where the fans are most engaged in. The study observed an imbalanced strategic leveraging of technology and digital infrastructure. While sports leagues have had less emphasis on brand value management via technology, sports sponsors have been much more active in utilizing technologies like mobile/LBS tools, big data/user info, real-time marketing and programmatic, and social media activation. Regardless of the new media/platforms, the study found that integration and contextualization are the two essential means of improving sports sponsorship effectiveness through technology. That is, how sponsors effectively integrate social media/mobile/second screen into their existing legacy media sponsorship plan so technology works for the experience/message instead of distracting fans. Additionally, technological advancement and attention economy amplify the importance of consumer data gathering, but sports consumer data does not mean loyalty or engagement. This study also affirms the benefit of digital media as they offer viral and pre-event activations through storytelling way before the actual event, which is critical for leveraging brand association before and after. That is, sponsors now have multiple opportunities and platforms to tell stories about their brands for longer time period. In summary, digital media facilitate fan experience, access to the brand message, multiplatform/channel presentations, storytelling, and content sharing. Nevertheless, rather than focusing on technology and media, today’s sponsors need to define what they want to focus on in terms of content themes that connect with their brands and then identify the channels/platforms. The big challenge for sponsors is to play to the venues/media’s specificity and its fit with the target audience and not uniformly deliver the same message in the same format on different platforms/channels.
Comparison of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses Following In-Water and On-Land Jump in Postmenopausal Women
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and lactate following continued high-intensity interval exercise in water and on land. The results of studies can be an exercise program design reference for health care and fitness professionals. Method: A total of 20 volunteer postmenopausal women was included in this study. The inclusion criteria were: duration of menopause > 1 year; and sedentary lifestyle, defined as engaging in moderate-intensity exercise less than three times per week, or less than 20 minutes per day. Participants need to visit experimental place three times. The first time visiting, body composition was performed and participant filled out the questionnaire. Participants were assigned randomly to the exercise environment (water or land) in second and third time visiting. Water exercise testing was under water of trochanter level. In continuing jump testing, each movement consisted 10-second maximum volunteer jump for two sets. 50% heart rate reserve dynamic resting (walking or running) for one minute was within each set. SBP, DBP, HR, RPE of whole body/thigh (RPEW/RPET) and lactate were performed at pre and post testing. HR, RPEW, and RPET were monitored after 1, 2, and 10 min of exercise testing. SBP and DBP were performed after 10 and 30 min of exercise testing. Results: The responses of SBP and DBP after exercise testing in water were higher than those on land. Lactate levels after exercise testing in water were lower than those on land. The responses of RPET were lower than those on land post exercise 1 and 2 minutes. The heart rate recovery in water was faster than those on land at post exercise 5 minutes. Conclusion: This study showed water interval jump exercise induces higher cardiovascular responses with lower RPE responses and lactate levels than on-land jumps exercise in postmenopausal women. Fatigue is one of the major reasons to obstruct exercise behavior. Jump exercise could enhance cardiorespiratory fitness, the lower-extremity power, strength, and bone mass. There are several health benefits to the middle to older adults. This study showed that water interval jumping could be more relaxed and not tried to reach the same land-based cardiorespiratory exercise intensity.
Reliability of Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 Age Band 3 Using Multiple Testers
Introduction: Reliability within and between testers is vital to ensure the accuracy of any motor assessment instrument. However, reliability checks of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) age band 3 using multiple testers assigned to different MABC-2 tasks for the same group of participants are uncommon. Multiple testers were not stated as a choice in the MABC-2 manual. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-tester reliability for using multiple testers to administer the test protocols of MABC-2 age band 3. Methods: Thirty volunteered adolescents (n = 30; 15 males, 15 females; age range: 13 – 16 years) performed the eight tasks in a randomised sequence at three different test stations for the MABC-2 task components (Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching, Balance). Ethics approval and parental consent were obtained. The participants were videotaped while performing the test protocols of MABC-2 age band 3. Five testers were involved in the data collection process. They were Sports Science graduating students doing their final year project and were supervised by experienced motor assessor. Inter- and intra-tester reliability checks using intra-class coefficient (ICC) were carried out using the videotaped data. Results: The inter-tester reliability between the five testers for the eight tasks ranged from rᵢcc = 0.705 to rᵢcc = 0.995. This suggests that the average agreement between them was considered good to excellent. With the exception of one tester who had rᵢcc = 0.687 for one of the eight tasks (i.e. zip-zap hopping), the intra-tester reliability within each tester ranged from rᵢcc = 0.728 to rᵢcc = 1.000, and this also suggested good to excellent consistency within testers. Discussion: The use of multiple testers with good intra-tester reliability for different test stations is feasible. This method allows several participants to be assessed concurrently at different test stations and saves overall data collection time. Therefore, it is recommended that the administering of MABC-2 with multiple testers should be extended to other age bands ensuring the feasibility of such method for other age bands.
The Impact of Barefoot versus Shod Running on Lower Limb Gait Cycle Pattern among Recreational Club Runners in Durban, South Africa
Introduction: Despite health benefits that come with running, injuries are common with prevalence ranging between 18.2% and 92.4% worldwide. Differences in gait patterns between barefoot and shod running, can determine traits that could lead to running injuries. The aim was to assess and compare lower limb gait cycle patterns between barefoot and shod running among runners. Methods: An experimental same-subject study design was used. The study population consisted of male and female adult recreational runners who were injury free from a running club in Durban. A convenience sampling method was used and 14 participants were recruited. The study was conducted in the physiotherapy performance laboratory at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. A Woodway Desmo Treadmill and KinePro gait analysis system were used. Descriptive & inferential statistics were analysed using Microsoft Excel and Intercooled Stata. Results: Participants included a greater percentage of females (57.1%, n = 8) than males (42.9%, n = 6). The mean population age was 38.57. A significant difference (p < 0.0009) between barefoot cadence (177.9236steps/min) and shod cadence (171.9445steps/min) was observed. Right (0.261s) and left (0.257s) barefoot stand phase was shorter than right (0.273s) and left (0.270s) shod stand phase. Right barefoot swing phase exhibited less significant (0.420s) results when compared to right shod swing phase (0.427s), whereas left barefoot swing phase was quicker (0.416s) than left shod swing phase (0.432s). Significant differences between barefoot and shod stand (p < 0.009) and swing (p < 0.040) phase symmetry occurred. Conclusion: A considerable difference was found between barefoot and shod running gait cycle patterns among participants. This difference may play a role in prevention of running related injuries.
Exploring the Strategies for Promoting Women Athletes for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games, a Study on Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee
Over the past decades, woman athletes have been played an extremely significant role for winning the Olympics Games medals for Chinese Taipei since its return to the Olympic Game in Los Angeles in 1984. In 1996, Chinese Taipei had the largest team than ever in Atlanta with 74 members, and the women (42) outnumbered the men (32) for the Olympiad. The Taiwanese women athletes have won more medals (16 medals out of 27) than men in the past six Summer Games. The Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee (CTOC) has long been the official authority to dominate and control the training resources and funds in sports. The CTOC mainly undertook international and cross-strait sports events, which offered more opportunities for domestic athletes to learn from other foreign players, get competition experiences in an international arena. This study aims to explore the CTOC strategies for promoting women’s participation in international sport events. To this end, content analysis was employed, with the relevant literature on the CTOC’s sport development strategies were collected for systematically analyzed and discussed. This study discovers that The CTOC has developed several strategies to encourage women to participating in women-related sports and events. Meanwhile, the CTOC actively encourages outstanding women in sport to participate in the election of the IOC Women and Sports Awards. Other strategies, including those that were aimed at improving the proportion of female committee members in sports leagues, have achieved good levels of performance. However, it has been a long time that Taiwanese people see baseball and basketball as mainstream sports. Limited attentions were paid onto non-mainstream sports, especially games with female players in. As additional sports for women are added with regularity, women have more chances to show their talents in sports to the world. Taiwanese women are now dominant in many sports, including taekwondo, golf, badminton and weight lifting; In fact, compare to men athletes, they all have more potential to take gold medals in all of those sports in 2020 Summer Olympic Games in Tokyo. As Taiwan has long been isolated internationally due to its political environment, it definitely is a good time to get more women in sports and make them speak for Taiwan. As a result, the CTOC should further improve its execution in developing marketing strategies, in order to drag more attentions from domestic people. Additionally, to meet the international goal of 40% of women in leading positions by 2020, the CTOC should pay particular attention to the structure of gender in sport. It is suggested that, for future reference, the CTOC should fully encourage women’s participation in sport by supporting more funds for sports education on campus, for the younger generation.
Research on Exercise Habits and Aging Anxiety of Insurance Practitioners
Rapid aging of the population is a common trend in the world. Successful and healthy aging is one of the goals pursued by every old man in Taiwan and other countries. It is also one of the main objectives of the government. Because of the progress of human society and modern medical technology, the average life expectancy of human beings has been prolonged, the global population structure has changed dramatically, and the elderly population has risen rapidly. In the face of rapid population aging at the same time, people began to think about the aging of the relevant issues: how the process of life into the aging process, can live a healthy life have dignity. However, how do we do to face the physiological, psychological and social problems associated with aging, this study aims to explore the face of aging this unavoidable physiological degradation problems, insurance practitioners how to actively face aging Anxiety study. Based on the relevant literature theory at home and abroad, using the Aging Anxiety Scale, Insurance practitioners were used as the research object, and 50 questionnaires were sent by questionnaires. The effective questionnaire rate was 87%. The results of the study showed that different working years, educational level and exercise habit had significant effects on aging anxiety, and finally put forward suggestions based on the above conclusions as a reference for future researchers.
The Implementation of Teaching and Learning Quality Assurance System at the Chaoyang University of Technology for Academic Year 2013-2015
Nowadays in Taiwan, higher education, which was previously more emphasized on teaching-oriented approaches, has gradually shifted to an approach more focusing on students learning outcomes. With student employment rate as an important indicator for University Program Evaluation periodically held by the Ministry of Education, it becomes extremely critical for a university to build up a teaching and learning quality assurance system to bridge the gap between learning and practice. Teaching and Learning Quality Assurance System has been built and implemented at Chaoyang University of Technology for years and has received substantial results. By employing various forms of evaluation and performance appraisals, the effectiveness of teaching and learning can consistently be tracked as a means of ensuring teaching and learning quality. This study aims to explore the evaluation system of teaching and learning quality assurance system at the Chaoyang University of Technology by means of content analysis. The study contents the evaluation reports on the teaching and learning quality assurance at the Chaoyang University of Technology in the Academic Year 2013-2015. The quantitative results of the assessment were analyzed using the five-point Likert Scale. Quality assurance Committee meetings were further held for examining and discussions on the results. To the end, the annual evaluation report is to be produced as references used to improve approaches in both teaching and learning. The findings indicate that there is a respective relationship between the overall teaching evaluation items and the teaching goals and core competencies. In addition, graduates’ feedbacks were also collected for further analysis to examine if the current educational planning is able to achieve the university’s teaching goal and cultivation of core competencies.
The Relationship among Exercise Participation, Job Stress and Job Satisfaction: A Study on Food Service Employees in Taiwan
As an increasing number of restaurants are growing, the demand for man force in the food service industry is dramatically increasing as well. However, food service workers often complete the heavy workload, infrequent breaks, long hours and shifts. With the overwhelming workload, many workers have experienced high injury rates. As a result, the restaurant industry reports a higher employee turnover rate compare to other service industries in Taiwan. Restaurant managers are seeing ways to retain good employees in order to provide good quality service for daily operation. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship among exercise participation, job stress and job satisfaction on the food service employees. In addition, to examine how the job stress affected their job satisfaction. A survey using a self-reported questionnaire was conducted to collect data, and 269 questionnaires were collected for data analysis. The obtained materials were analyzed using descriptive statistic, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, linear regression analysis. The results show that 1. Job stress had a significantly negative influence on employees’ job satisfaction. 2. Exercise participation had significantly positive influence on employees’ job satisfaction. 3. Job stress and job satisfaction varied among the groups of respondent with different level of exercise involvement. Furthermore, the practical implications were proposed for the food service company management when developing daily operational strategies.
Exploring the Factors That Influence the Choices of Senior on Sporting Goods and Brands: A Case Study of Wufeng District, Taichung City
In recent years, sports culture dominated in Taiwan, which spurred the rapid development of the sports industry. More innovative and high-tech sporting goods were developed to provide choices for consumers. Nowadays, Taiwan has gradually entered the aging society where people pay more attention to health promotion, delay of aging and other related issues among senior. However, it is an undeniable fact that moderate exercise is a great help to delay aging. Therefore, how senior select the appropriate sporting goods, including sports shoes, sportswear, sports equipment, and even the sports brands when engaged in various kinds of sports, are explored in this research. Therefore, this study sets the reference indicators by exploring the brands of sporting goods, that senior aged 50-70 choose in a fog peak district, the Taichung City, as the subjects of study by answering a questionnaire. Also, this study offers recommendations in terms of the design, marketing or selling of sporting goods for the senior, and how owners of sports brands or related sports industries should target them.